ML p(r)ior | Efficient Index for Weighted Sequences

### Efficient Index for Weighted Sequences

2016-02-02
1602.01116 | cs.DS
The problem of finding factors of a text string which are identical or similar to a given pattern string is a central problem in computer science. A generalised version of this problem consists in implementing an index over the text to support efficient on-line pattern queries. We study this problem in the case where the text is weighted: for every position of the text and every letter of the alphabet a probability of occurrence of this letter at this position is given. Sequences of this type, also called position weight matrices, are commonly used to represent imprecise or uncertain data. A weighted sequence may represent many different strings, each with probability of occurrence equal to the product of probabilities of its letters at subsequent positions. Given a probability threshold $1/z$, we say that a pattern string $P$ matches a weighted text at position $i$ if the product of probabilities of the letters of $P$ at positions $i,\ldots,i+|P|-1$ in the text is at least $1/z$. In this article, we present an $O(nz)$-time construction of an $O(nz)$-sized index that can answer pattern matching queries in a weighted text in optimal time improving upon the state of the art by a factor of $z \log z$. Other applications of this data structure include an $O(nz)$-time construction of the weighted prefix table and an $O(nz)$-time computation of all covers of a weighted sequence, which improve upon the state of the art by the same factor.

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